Governor Lynn J. Frazier

What interests groups, to include political parties, were involved in the success or failure of this recall election and why? What was the result of the recall election?

The recall event was directed by the North Dakota Independent Voters Association. This association was organized in 1918 by ousted Republican state representative E.E. Everson as a means for conservative Democrats and Republicans to work together against the Nonpartisan League. This information comes from ( In a campaign that accused Frazier of North Dakota’s economic anguish and highlighted his anti-war stance during World War I, the governor was voted out of office and replaced by Independent Voters Association member and Republican Ragnvold A. Nestos. Information gathered from (

◦Were there any unintended consequences of this recall election?

The new governor Ragnvold A. Nestos did not try to break apart the grain elevator and state bank. Instead, he continued the reform efforts which begun by former governor Frazier, as a state registry of births and deaths and a state health department were both created during his governorship. Information gathered from (

◦Do you believe recall elections are good or bad for democracies and why?

I think that recall elections are good for democracies because they can be reserved for criminal wrongdoing or gross misconduct. Recall elections send an undeviating message to elected officials that they will be responsible for the promises that they make to the people that they represent. If they fail to keep those promises, they risk drawing the ire of the electorate.

1.  In your view, why is the idea of “global justice” displacing the notion of international law?  (Remembering that the term “international law” can mean both law between nation-states and law among nation-states.)  Further, how have national societies lost their relevance as the “moral watershed” of justice?

Be sure to include a current event item from an internet news source to illustrate your answer.

News sources on the internet may be found in our Library (see the link on the left-side toolbar).  The best database is Lexis Nexis.  Do an “advanced search” to set date parameters to the past six months. 

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